Trenches should be at least two metres deep to harness a consistent year-round heat source. Trenches will need 50-80 metres of pipe per kilowatt (kW), or 10 metres of ‘slinky’ coiled pipe per kW, with at least 5 metre distance between trenches with coils. So a typical 8kW heat pump requires around 400m2 of ground area for slinky coils. Note, however, that this will depend on a number of factors, including ground conditions.
Boreholes need 20-50 metres of pipe per kW, and will usually be 100-150 metres deep. You may need 2-4 pipes per borehole, or more than one borehole. The Pipe diameter should be 20 to 40mm for best performance: large enough to reduce pumping power but small enough to increase flow velocity and cause ‘turbulent flow’ (giving better heat transfer). Bear in mind that installers trying to reduce costs might skimp on the length or bore of pipe, or the depth of the trenches.